Surgical management of hydrocephalus

5 Hydrocephalus Nursing Care Plans - Nurseslabs

Surgical management of arrested hydrocephalus: Case report, literature review, and 18-month follow-up. Hong J(1), Barrena BG(2), Lollis SS(3), Bauer DF(4). Author information: (1)Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA 1. Nihon Rinsho. 1976 May 10;34(5):1027-32. [Surgical management of hydrocephalus]. [Article in Japanese] Matsumoto S, Yamasaki S. PMID: 98823 Chapter 94 Surgical Management of Hydrocephalus in the Adult David M. Frim, Richard Penn, Maureen Lacy Hydrocephalus, from the Greek word meaning water in the head, is a general term used to describe many conditions of fluid collected in the intracranial space

Hydrocephalus Ex-vacuo: It primarily affects adults and occurs when a degenerative disease, like Alzheimer's disease, stroke or trauma, causes damage to the brain that may cause the brain tissue to shrink. Symptoms The symptoms of hydrocephalus tend to vary greatly from person to person and across different age groups. Infants and young. The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is the surgical insertion of a drainage system, called a shunt. It consists of a long, flexible tube with a valve that keeps fluid from the brain flowing in the right direction and at the proper rate Surgical treatment is the preferred therapeutic option in patients with hydrocephalus. [ 4] Most patients eventually undergo shunt placements, such as the following: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.. Surgical treatments Hydrocephalus is treated with one of two surgical options: A shunt (tube) is surgically inserted into the brain and connected to a flexible tube placed under the skin to drain the excess fluid into either the chest cavity or the abdomen so it can be absorbed by the body Surgical management of hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant eisha a. christian, md,1 edward F. melamed, ba,2 edwin Peck, md,1 mark d. Krieger, md,1,2 and J. gordon mccomb, md1,2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California; and 2Division of Neurosurgery

Surgical management of arrested hydrocephalus: Case report

[Surgical management of hydrocephalus]

The management of adult hydrocephalus spans a broad range of disorders and ages. Modern management strategies include endoscopic and adjustable cerebrospinal fluid shunt diversionary techniques. The assessment and management of the following clinical conditions are discussed: 1) the adult patient with congenital or childhood-onset hydrocephalus, 2) adult slit ventricle syndrome, 3. Surgical ablation of the choroid plexus as a means to control hydrocephalus was proposed by Dandy . Using modern surgical techniques in combination with endoscopic third ventriculostomy, Warf has shown that this approach can be successful in selected cases less than 1-year age . Non-surgical means of destroying the choroid plexus have also been.

Endoscopic membrane fenestration in the management of complex or multiloculated hydrocephalus has been widely described as the preferred surgical treatment option [ 57, 65, 66, 67 ]. The distorted ventricular anatomy and scarring of the ependymal walls make the procedure technically quite challenging Chronic hydrocephalus has also been linked to sub-clinical cellular and molecular damage , . Optimal management of adult patients with arrested hydrocephalus is widely debated. Here, we describe a case of arrested hydrocephalus with delayed decompensation and review the literature to date on this controversial clinical entity. 2 Surgical Management of Fetal Hydrocephalus. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Abdulrahman Al Anazi; Chapter. First Online: 17 July 2017. 940 Downloads; Abstract. Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting to enlargement of the ventricular system where intracranial pressure is frequently elevated. Neonatal. Management of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) Transient or progressive ventricular dilatation is seen in 20%-50% patients with premature IVH. Early ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is associated with a high failure rate and many complications in premature infants with PHH; hence, temporizing measures are always instituted until.

Surgical Management of Hydrocephalus in the Adult

  1. Frim DM, Scott RM, Madsen JR. Surgical management of neonatal hydrocephalus. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1998 Jan. 9(1):105-10. . Garvey MA, Laureno R. Hydrocephalus: obliterated perimesencephalic cisterns and the danger of sudden death. Can J Neurol Sci. 1998 May. 25(2):154-8. . Goumnerova LC, Frim DM
  2. Surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus The treatment of INPH should not be considered lightly, given the seriousness of the potential complications. Within these limitations and the available evidence, guidelines for surgical management were developed
  3. Bergsneider M, Black PM, Klinge P, Marmarou A, Relkin N (2005) Surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 57(3 Suppl):S29-S39 PubMed Google Scholar 16
  4. Abstract. Objective Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in the preterm infant remains a major neurological complication of prematurity. The authors first described insertion of a specially designed low-profile subcutaneous ventricular catheter reservoir for temporary management of hydrocephalus in 1983
  5. DOI: 10.5326/0410267 Corpus ID: 35235355. Surgical management of combined hydrocephalus, syringohydromyelia, and ventricular cyst in a dog. @article{Hasegawa2005SurgicalMO, title={Surgical management of combined hydrocephalus, syringohydromyelia, and ventricular cyst in a dog.}, author={Takashi Hasegawa and Y. Taura and H. Kido and A. Shibazaki and H. Katamoto}, journal={Journal of the.
  6. There are two forms of surgical management for hydrocephalus, these include: The Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt System. This is the most common form of treatment for hydrocephalus. The procedure involves the implantation of a device called a shunt. This is a small, flexible tube which is inserted into the brain's ventricles
  7. Gait instability, urinary incontinence, and dementia are the signs and symptoms typically found in patients who have normal pressure hydrocephalus. Estimated to cause no more than 5 percent of.

Hydrocephalus - Causes, Symptom and Surgical Treatment

Early attempts at surgical management of hydrocephalus in patients with TBM included repeated tapping of the ventricles through burr holes, suboccipital decompression, lateral and third ventriculostomy (open) and ventriculo-subarachnoid shunts. The availability of reliable shunt systems in the early 1960s dramatically changed the management of. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT  A shunt is made up of radio plastic and has ventricular cathetar, pressure valve, pumping chamber, and distal catheter that directs the flow of CSF from the ventricles to other areas of body from where it is absorbed Surgical Management of External Hydrocephalus in a Calf. Hydrocephalus is an accumulation of excessive fluid in dura matter or ventricles of the brain thereby leading to the swelling of the cranium (Long, 2001). Congenital hydrocephalus can be internal or external, and is mainly due to abnormal development of the foetus during pregnancy.

Tubercular meningitis

Hydrocephalus - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

Abstract. THE SURGICAL MANAGEMENT of hydrocephalus has undergone incredible changes over the past generation of neurosurgeons, including dramatic improvements in imaging, especially computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging, and remarkably innovative advances in cerebrospinal fluid valve technology, complex computer models, and endoscopic equipment and techniques Introduction. Hydrocephalus is the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cerebral ventricles. From the presence of increased CSF, ventricular dilatation occurs, which can in turn lead to white matter damage, gliotic scarring, and eventual in death if left untreated. In this article, we will cover the clinical features, investigations and management options of hydrocephalus Surgical management of hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant Eisha A. Christian MD 1 , Edward F. Melamed BA 2 , Edwin Peck MD 1 , Mark D. Krieger MD 1 , 2 , and J. Gordon McComb MD 1 , Hydrocephalus is an accumulation of excessive fluid in dura matter or ventricles of the brain thereby leading to the swelling of the cranium (Long, 2001). Congenital hydrocephalus can be internal or external, and is mainly due to abnormal development of the foetus during pregnancy; however, hereditary, infectious, environmental and nutritional factors can also predispose this condition. Surgical Management of External Hydrocephalus in a Calf Mohsin S. Vahora*, Sanjay B. Patel, Preeti G. Shukla InTroducTIon H ydrocephalus is an accumulation of excessive fluid in dura matter or ventricles of the brain thereby leading to the swelling of the cranium (Long, 2001). Congenital hydrocephalus can be internal or external, and is mainl

Surgical management If there is obstructive or non-communicating hydrocephalus removal the obstruction is preferred. In progressive symptomatic hydrocephalus surgical intervention such as shunting of cerebrospinal fluid to facilitate absorption of CSF is required A second surgical treatment option is called an ETV. With this procedure, an endoscope is used to puncture a membrane on the floor of the third ventricle. This creates a pathway for CSF to exit the ventricular system and a shunt may not be needed. This procedure is typically performed in children over the age of 2. Not everyone is a candidate. In order to assess the complication rates of cerebrospinal fluid diversion techniques used at our institution, a retrospective study of the surgical management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was conducted from a population of 547 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 1987 to 1989. The incidences of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in the 3 years. One or more of the following tests are usually performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the person's candidacy for surgical treatment: Brain imaging exams identify enlarged ventricles. Computed tomography (CT scans) is a reliable procedure for diagnosing and assisting in the management of hydrocephalus. It is a sophisticated technique. Keywords: Hydrocephalus, neuro-physiology, pediatric patients. Introduction Recent advances in both neuro-surgery and neuroanae-sthesia have made early detection and management of hydrocephalous possible. But still, lack of adequate knowledge and proper access to medical care, may re

Free Online Library: Surgical Management of Hydrocephalus in a New Born Calf.(Short Communication, Clinical report) by Intas Polivet; Health, general Brain damage Calves Care and treatment Case studies Calves (Cattle) Diseases Cattle diseases Veterinary surgery Method Surgical Management of Combined Hydrocephalus, Syringohydromyelia, and Ventricular Cyst in a Dog Takashi Hasegawa, DVM, PhD; Combined hydrocephalus, syringohydromyelia, and a ventricular cyst were found by magnetic resonance imaging in a 7-month-old, male miniature dachshund with gait abnormalities and altered mentation.. Surgical management of hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant . 7 0 Surgical management If there is obstructive or non-communicating hydrocephalus removal the obstruction is preferred. In progressive symptomatic hydrocephalus surgical intervention such as shunting of cerebrospinal fluid to facilitate absorption of CSF is required. Most patients need mechanical extra cranial shunt system for redirect. Currently, most children with hydrocephalus reach adulthood with proper shunt management; and studies show that over 50% of these are educable (1). The effectiveness of shunts is high (24); and shunting procedures have thus become standard treatment for most types of hydrocephalus, having radically transformed the outcome of the disorder

Surgical Management of Hemorrhagic Stroke with Intra-Ventricular Extension and Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus: 12 Months Retrospective Review. Ugwuanyi CU 1*, AnigboAA 1, Ogungbo B 1, Solanke O 2, Nwaribe EE 3, Ugwu E 3, Udoh LE 1, Onwuka SI 1 and Jamgbadi SS 2 1 Neurosurgery Unit, National Hospital Abuja & Wellington Neurosurgery Centre Abuja. Obstructive hydrocephalus is caused by an obstruction of CSF drainage by a tumor, congenital defect, or infection. Most cases of hydrocephalus are obstructive Surgical management of hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant. Journal of neurosurgery Pediatrics. 2016;17(3):278-284. de Vries LS, Groenendaal F, Liem KD, et al. Treatment thresholds for intervention in posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilation: a randomised controlled trial

What are the surgical options for treatment of hydrocephalus

Surgical Management of Hydrocephalus and Postoperative Care of the Shunted Patient. Elsevier ; 2008 : p. 149-155 Karimy JK, Zhang J, Kurland DB, et al. Inflammation-dependent cerebrospinal fluid hypersecretion by the choroid plexus epithelium in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Nat Med. 2017; 23 (8): p.997-1003 Hydrocephalus occurs in 60-90% of patients with occipital encephaloceles. Objective: Assessment of the surgical management of hydrocephalus associated with occipital encephalocele and its effect on the clinical outcome. Methods: Between October 2015 and October 2019, a retrospective study was conducted on seventeen childre

Management of arrested hydrocephalus in asymptomatic adults is controversial, with little clinical data. This case highlights the potential for decompensation in adults with arrested hydrocephalus and reviews the literature regarding pathophysiology and management of this clinical entity Medical management of hydrocephalus is largely symptomatic by reducing intracranial pressure and CSF production. Antiepileptic drugs are administered to control seizures. Surgical treatment involves shunting of CSF away from the obstructed regions of the ventricular system and is reserved for animals with worsening of neurologic signs that do. Definitive airway management with endotracheal intubation is the most commonly utilized approach for hydrocephalus procedures. Emergent surgical patients should be treated as having full stomachs. Early surgical management and long-term surgical outcome for intraventricular hemorrhage-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in shunt-treated premature infants. Bock HC, Feldmann J, Ludwig HC. J Neurosurg Pediatr, 22(1):61-67, 04 May 2018 Cited by: 4 articles | PMID: 2972679

Noncommunicating (Obstructive) Hydrocephalus | Consultant360

Certainly, neonatal hydrocephalus will perturb cerebral development and calls for careful and timely intervention. Many competing factors must be taken into account when evaluating the neonate with hydrocephalus. A neurosurgical approach to the management of neonatal hydrocephalus is presented with emphasis on practical treatment paradigms S. Hassan A. Akbari, Terrence F. Holekamp, T. Martin Murphy, Deanna Mercer, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Matthew D. Smyth, T. S. Park, David D. Limbric The purpose of this lecture is to review the evolution of the medical and surgical management of hydrocephalus, and to discuss the benefits and pitfalls of today's state of the art in therapy. Some important historical landmarks are listed below: Hippocrates (5th century B.C.): Recognized that the head could swell in response to an.

Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet National Institute of

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is the most common cause of hydrocephalus in the preterm newborn, but the timing of surgical intervention for this condition remains controversial. Recent evidence suggests that earlier, rather than later, intervention may have some benefits, but more data are needed to adequately inform clinical practice Their surgical management is mainly based on endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), after sub-zero drainage. I do agree that in the hard clinical situation with LPH, when simple shunt is highly possible to be ineffective, ETV can be a good alternative for the management of hydrocephalus, either for short or longer period of time Overall management approach too varied to allow for reasonable conclusions to be made. Absence of relapse in 31, relapse in 6, death in 4 (not directly related to shunt infection). Outcome not dependent on length of antibiotic treatment or use of IT antibiotics. Surgical approach to treatment too varied to permit conclusions re: efficacy Hydrocephalus can happen at any age, but it occurs more frequently among infants and adults 60 and over. Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus can restore and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels in the brain. Many different therapies are often required to manage symptoms or functional impairments resulting from hydrocephalus 12. Drake JM. The surgical management of pediatric hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 2008;62(2):633-640. 13. Doorenbosch X, Molloy CJ, David DJ, Santoreneos S, Anderson PJ. Management of cranial deformity following ventricular shunting. Child's Nervous System 2009;25:871-874. 14

Robot-Assisted Stereoelectroencephalography - Neurosurgery

Review of the Treatment & Management of Hydrocephalu

Unlike supratentorial ICH, cerebellar ICH is considered a neurosurgical emergency and evacuation is recommended per current guidelines given the high morbidity from rapid development of brainstem compression. 20 Surgical indications include haematoma size >3 cm in diameter, brainstem compression or hydrocephalus Schmidek and Sweet has been an indispensable reference for neurosurgery training and practice for nearly 50 years, and the 7th Edition of Operative Neurosurgical Techniques continues this tradition of excellence. A new editorial board led by editor-in-chief Dr. Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, along with more than 330 internationally acclaimed. Management: Hydrocephalus can be treated through a variety of surgical procedures, including: Direct operation on the lesion causing the obstruction, such as a tumor. Intracranial shunts for selected cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus to divert fluid from the obstructed segment of the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space In infants who present with rapidly progressive and/or symptomatic hydrocephalus, surgical intervention is required.10,17 The traditional surgical intervention for rapidly enlarging ventricles, also known as hydrocephalus, has predominantly been the insertion of a VP shunt

Surgical management of NPH

Subdural effusion with hydrocephalus (SDEH) is a rare complication of traumatic brain injury, especially following decompressive craniectomy (DC) for posttraumatic cerebral infarction. The diagnosis and treatment are still difficult and controversial for neurosurgeons. A 45-year-old man developed traumatic cerebral infarction after traumatic brain injury and underwent DC because of the mass. Reliable indications of good surgical response are still lacking, particularly with regard to the shunt procedure. In the presence of short history, a known cause of hydrocephalus, predominance of gait disturbances, and CT or MRI findings for hydrodynamic hydrocephalus, it is not difficult to decide on surgery and recommend a shunt to the patient Early attempts at surgical management of hydrocephalus in patients with TBM included repeated tapping of the ventricles through burr holes, suboccipital decompression, lateral and third ventriculostomy (open) and ventriculo-subarachnoid shunts.[12] The availability of reliable shunt systems in the early 1960s dramatically changed the management.

About Hydrocephalus Shunting. Strata Adjustable Pressure Valve for CSF management. Shunting is the most common treatment for anyone with hydrocephalus (excess fluid buildup in the ventricles of the brain) Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a disease resulting from too much cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and affects roughly 750,000 Americans, typically those over 65 years old. Penn State researchers are developing a new technology called HydroFix, an advanced surgical shunt system to address NPH

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is. surgical. is management of hydrocephalus medical or surgical? LP (lumbar puncture) surgical management for communicating hydrocephalus. CT. first line dx imaging for hydrocephalus. US. dx imaging for hydrocephalus in infants w/ open fontanelles. LP. procedure to tell high pressure from normal pressure hydrocephalus

What is the surgical management of hydrocephalus? CSF diversion, III ventriculostomy, shunt insertion, external ventricular drain. What is an III ventriculostomy? Procedure in which a new foramen is created in the floor of the III ventricle trained in surgical instrument and cutlery techniques. Jetter's original workshop, located in Tuttlingen, Germany, is the same location where Aesculap world headquarters resides today. offer a variety of hydrocephalus management products that address the different aspects o Short-term medical management of hydrocephalus. PocaMA ,SahuquilloJ. Department of Neurosurgery, Valld'HebronUniversity Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, PasseigVall d'Hebron119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain. pocama@neurotrauma.net The most suitable drug seems to be acetazolamide,alone or in combination with furosemide VP shunting has been the mainstay of long-term surgical management of hydrocephalus for over six decades. However, VP shunts frequently fail. In children, approximately 30-50% of shunts fail within the first 2 years [ 82 , 83 , 84 ] and 80% of shunt fail within 4 years [ 83 ], necessitating revision, externalization, or removal, all of which. Aim. The aim of this article was to report a new transomphalic extraperitoneal surgical technique for treatment of hydrocephalus, called ventriculoportal shunt. Materials and Methods. We performed.

Intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography to guide

Hydrocephalus Nursing Care Planning and Management: Study

  1. Diagnosis and management of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. J Neurol 2000; 247:5. Krauss JK, Droste DW, Vach W, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus of the elderly: effect of periventricular and deep white matter lesions
  2. Hydrocephalus Classification There is no international consensus on the classification of hydrocephalus, and there are various systems based on the age of onset, cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and anatomical area of accumulation, the levels of cerebrospinal fluid pressure and the presence of symptoms. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these.
  3. e the efficiency of the various bypass procedures used for the treatment of hydrocephalus in patients with brain.
  4. The nursing goals for a client with hydrocephalus may include improving cerebral tissue perfusion, reducing anxiety, preventing injury, and the absence of complications. Here are five (5) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis (NDx) for hydrocephalus: Ineffective Cerebral Tissue Perfusion. Anxiety. Risk for Injury (Preoperative


  1. Causes hydrocephalus Closure of the defect in utero: Corrects all these problems Caveat: because this is a surgical created, then corrected defect, it may not be the same as the clinical syndrome . Management of children with spina bifida in the age of fetal intervention . Meuli M et al, Nature Medicine 199
  2. Surgical management of complex multiloculated hydrocephalus in infants and children. S. Hassan A. Akbari, Terrence F. Holekamp, T. Martin Murphy et al: 2014 Child's Nervous System, 31(2) Read Mor
  3. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) was first reported in 1965 as a triad of dementia, gait disturbance, or meningitis. 2 Although CSF diversion via a shunt is the mainstay of NPH management, surgical outcomes in INPH have been consistently less successful than those in SNPH. 3-5 In addition,.

However, as with all surgical procedures, there are some risks. Read more about the complications of hydrocephalus. The long-term results of ETV are similar to those for a shunt operation. As with shunts, there's a risk of a blockage happening months or years after surgery, which will cause your symptoms to return. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Surgical Treatment of Hydrocephalus. Warf BC, Stagno V, Mugamba J. Encephalocele in Uganda: ethnic distinctions in lesion location, endoscopic management of hydrocephalus, and survival in 110. Bergsneider M, Miller C, Vespa PM, Hu X. Surgical management of adult hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb;62 Suppl 2:643-59 Arriada N, Sotelo J. Review: treatment of hydrocephalus in adults Hydrocephalus needs to be followed closely and treated properly to prevent brain injury. If a baby with spina bifida has hydrocephalus, a surgeon can put in a shunt. A shunt is a small hollow tube that will help drain the fluid from the baby's brain and protect it from too much pressure Bergsneider M, Black PM, Klinge P, et al. Surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(suppl):S29-39. Klinge P, Marmarou A, Bergsneider M, et al. Outcome of shunting in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus and the value of outcome assessment in shunted patients

Hydrocephalus – Congenital | Advanced Veterinary MedicalPredictors of outcome of subdural empyema in children inSurgical management of intraventricular central

Hydrocephalus may present acutely or in a more chronic fashion, depending on the severity of the CSF alterations. Treatment is surgical and may include resection of causative lesions, shunt placement, or third ventriculostomy. Patients who require shunt placement are at a life-long risk of shunt failure and acute neurologic decline Hydrocephalus is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Hydrocephalus leads to prolonged hospital and ICU stays, well as to repeated surgical interventions, readmission s, and complication s associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt s, including shunt failure and shunt infection Weller S, Gartner J. Genetic and clinical aspect of X-linked hydrocephalus (L1 disease): Mutations in the L1CAM gene. Hum Mutat. 2001;18:1-12. Cinalli G, Salazar C, Mallucci C, et al. The role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of shunt malfunction. Neurosurgery. 1998;43:1323-27, discussion 1327-29 Normal pressure hydrocephalus(NPH) is a neurological disorder caused by too much fluid pressing on the brain. WebMD explains causes, symptoms, and treatment options (2005) Surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 57: S29-S39. Article Google Scholar 7. Marmarou A et al. (2005) The value of supplemental prognostic tests. There are several surgical procedures to treat hydrocephalus: Removal of the obstruction (e.g., brain tumor or blot clot) causing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ventricular shunt surgery: The goal of this procedure is to enable the excess CSF to flow out of the ventricle into another region of the body where it can be absorbed